Sunday, May 24, 2020
The New Job In a traditional model of human resources, employees move through employment in a typical progression from hiring to separation or retirement. As we enter the new era of an advanced high-tech environment, the business world is also entering into an era of fierce competition noticed by takeovers and mergers. This illuminates the type of dynamic and complex business environment that companies have to face. The rapid change in the environment reminds us that, for a business to survive, it has to focus on its core competencies and discover in order to keep ahead of the competitors. The field of Strategic Human Resource Management has evolved mainly in accordance to the fact that human resources need to be managed strategically forÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The marketing department is focusing on the long term interests of the department and the associates are working very hard to help the clients. Therefore department is falling away from the administrative tasks. Job Recommendation As marketing department is falling their office works and the financial tasks, due to those reasons assistant manager discussed with the manager to create new position to do those work done. Therefore, as an assistant manager has to create a position as administrative assistant to establish the administrative works that they falling behind. Specially this department need an administrative assistant with knowledge of account receivables and the account payable and the computer skills for accounting purposes as well as for administrative work to done. This marketing department has a great responsibility because they are supporting other companies for their marketing campaigns. With creating administrative assistant position will help marketing department to build their long tern relationships with the clients while successing the office works of the department. Employee Competencies The successful administrative assistant has a wide variety of skills, characteristics and qualities. To achieve this position duties , administrative assistant has to have Adaptability which is this person can adapt to changing situations and react for them well, because marketing depart is working with different clients majoring
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
According to Reel News Daily, on average, there are 57 movies released every month or 684 movies each year. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s way more movies than the average person watches in a given year. So, how do we decide what movies to go watch and what not to watch? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s pleasing and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s appalling? Fortunately, we have critics who watch most of these movies and write reviews to help narrow down what movies to and not to view. One of these critics is Robert Ebert. Robert Ebert is an honorable critic to base judgements off of because he does an exceptional job summarizing the plot, stating his personal opinions, and speaking about the actors/directorÃ¢â¬â¢s roles in the film. Summarizing the plot of a film without giving away too many details and spoiling the story is one of the most important part about writing a movie review. Robert Elbert has this skill mastered as he did an exceptional job summarizing the movie the wizard of oz. He did it well while still making the audien ce curious enough to go and watch the film. Elbert keeps summaries of specific events very brief and concise, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦The Wizard sends them on a mission to get the Wicked Witch s broom, and it is not insignificant that the key to DorothyÃ¢â¬â¢s return to Kansas is the pair of ruby slippers.Ã¢â¬ This sentence does an excellent job of summing up what is towards the end of the movie. This section of the film consumes a total of fifteen minutes but Elbert sums it up completely with one sentence. This is a sign of an excellent writer andShow MoreRelatedEssay Cinema of Attraction1656 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfilms the Great Train Robbery, Nanook of the North and The Wizard of Oz. There are some film qualities that without a doubt would prove to be an attraction to the audience. However, depending on how the individual interprets, this Ãâattraction is subjective and thus every audience member may find different techniques in the film to have some form of appeal. The Great Train Robbery was one of the earliest silent films, directed by Edwin S. Porter in 1903. Being historys first film narrative, much
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Nine I DIDNÃ¢â¬â¢T SEE DIMITRI FOR a while after that. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d sent a message later that day saying that he thought we should cancel our next two sessions because of the rapidly approaching plans to leave campus. Classes were about to end anyway, he said; taking a break from practice seemed like the reasonable thing. We will write a custom essay sample on Frostbite Chapter 9 or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was a lame excuse, and I knew that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the reason he was canceling. If he wanted to avoid me, I would have preferred he made up something about how he and the other guardians had to up Moroi security or practice top-secret ninja moves. Regardless of his story, I knew he was avoiding me because of the kiss. That damned kiss. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t regret it, not exactly. God only knew how much IÃ¢â¬â¢d been wanting to kiss him. But IÃ¢â¬â¢d done it for the wrong reasons. IÃ¢â¬â¢d done it because I was upset and frustrated and had simply wanted to prove that I could. I was so tired of doing the right thing, the smart thing. I was trying to be more in control lately, but I seemed to be slipping. I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t forgotten the warning that heÃ¢â¬â¢d once given me- that us being together wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just about age. It would interfere with our jobs. Pushing him into the kissÃ¢â¬ ¦well, IÃ¢â¬â¢d fanned the flames of a problem that could eventually hurt Lissa. I shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have done it. Yesterday, IÃ¢â¬â¢d been unable to stop myself. Today I could see more clearly and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe what IÃ¢â¬â¢d done. Mason met me on Christmas morning, and we went to go hang out with the others. It provided a good opportunity to push Dimitri out of my head. I liked Mason- a lot. And it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like I had to run off and marry him. Like Lissa had said, it would be healthy for me to just date someone again. Tasha was hosting our Christmas brunch in an elegant parlor in the AcademyÃ¢â¬â¢s guest quarters. Lots of group activities and parties were occurring throughout the school, but IÃ¢â¬â¢d quickly noticed that TashaÃ¢â¬â¢s presence always created a disturbance. People either secretly stared or went out of their way to avoid her. Sometimes she would challenge them. Sometimes she would just lie low. Today, sheÃ¢â¬â¢d chosen to stay out of the other royalsÃ¢â¬â¢ way and simply enjoy this small, private party of those who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t shun her. Dimitri had been invited to the gathering, and a bit of my resolve faltered when I saw him. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d actually dressed up for the occasion. Okay, Ã¢â¬Å"dressed upÃ¢â¬ might have been an exaggeration, but it was the closest IÃ¢â¬â¢d ever seen him come to that. Usually he just looked a little roughÃ¢â¬ ¦like he could spring into battle at any given moment. Today, his dark hair was tied at the back of his neck, as though heÃ¢â¬â¢d actually tried to make it neat. He wore his usual jeans and leather boots, but instead of a T-shirt or thermal shirt, he had on a finely knit black sweater. It was just an ordinary sweater, nothing designer or expensive, but it added a touch of polish I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t usually see, and good God, did it fit him well. Dimitri wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to me or anything, but he certainly didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go out of his way to make conversation with me. He did talk to Tasha, however, and I watched with fascination as they conversed in that easy way of theirs. IÃ¢â¬â¢d since learned that a good friend of his was a distant cousin of TashaÃ¢â¬â¢s family; that was how the two of them knew each other. Ã¢â¬Å"Five?Ã¢â¬ asked Dimitri in surprise. They were discussing the friendÃ¢â¬â¢s children. Ã¢â¬Å"I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t heard that.Ã¢â¬ Tasha nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s insane. I swear, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s had more than six months off between kids. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s short, too- so she just gets wider and wider.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"When I first met him, he swore he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even want kids.Ã¢â¬ Her eyes widened excitedly. Ã¢â¬Å"I know! I canÃ¢â¬â¢t believe it. You should see him now. He just melts around them. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t even understand him half the time. I swear, he speaks more baby talk than English.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri smiled his rare smile. Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦children do that to people.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢t imagine it happening to you,Ã¢â¬ she laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re always so stoic. Of course Ã¢â¬ ¦ I suppose youÃ¢â¬â¢d be doing baby talk in Russian, so no one would ever know.Ã¢â¬ They both laughed at that, and I turned away, grateful Mason was there to talk to. He was a good distraction from everything, because in addition to Dimitri ignoring me, Lissa and Christian were chatting on in their own little world too. Sex appeared to have made them that much more in love, and I wondered if IÃ¢â¬â¢d get to spend any time with her at all on the ski trip. She did eventually break away from him to give me my Christmas present. I opened the box and stared inside. I saw a string of maroon-colored beads, and the scent of roses floated out. Ã¢â¬Å"What the Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I lifted the beads out, and a heavy gold crucifix swung from the end of them. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d given me a chotki. It was similar to a rosary, only smaller. Bracelet-size. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you trying to convert me?Ã¢â¬ I asked wryly. Lissa wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a religious nut or anything, but she believed in God and attended church regularly. Like many Moroi families whoÃ¢â¬â¢d come from Russia and Eastern Europe, she was an Orthodox Christian. Me? I was pretty much an Orthodox Agnostic. I figured God probably existed, but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the time or energy to investigate. Lissa respected that and never tried to push her faith on me, which made the gift that much weirder. Ã¢â¬Å"Flip it over,Ã¢â¬ she said, clearly amused at my shock. I did. On the back of the cross, a dragon wreathed in flowers had been carved into the gold. The Dragomir crest. I looked up at her, puzzled. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a family heirloom,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"One of my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s good friends has been saving boxes of his stuff. This was in it. It belonged to my great-grandmotherÃ¢â¬â¢s guardian.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Liss Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I said. The chotki took on a whole new meaning. Ã¢â¬Å"I canÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ ¦ you canÃ¢â¬â¢t give me something like this.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, I certainly canÃ¢â¬â¢t keep it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s meant for a guardian. My guardian.Ã¢â¬ I wound the beads around one wrist. The cross felt cool against my skin. Ã¢â¬Å"You know,Ã¢â¬ I teased, Ã¢â¬Å"thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a good possibility IÃ¢â¬â¢ll get kicked out of school before I can become your guardian.Ã¢â¬ She grinned. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, then you can give it back.Ã¢â¬ Everyone laughed. Tasha started to say something, then stopped when she looked up at the door. Ã¢â¬Å"Janine!Ã¢â¬ My mother stood there, looking as stiff and impassive as ever. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry IÃ¢â¬â¢m late,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"I had business to take care of.Ã¢â¬ Business. As always. Even on Christmas. I felt my stomach turn and heat rise to my cheeks as the details of our fight came rushing back to my mind. SheÃ¢â¬â¢d never sent one word of communication since it had happened two days ago, not even when I was in the infirmary. No apologies. Nothing. I gritted my teeth. She sat down with us and soon joined in the conversation. IÃ¢â¬â¢d long since discovered she could really only talk about one subject: guardian business. I wondered if she had any hobbies. The Badica attack was on everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, and this drove her into a conversation about some similar fight sheÃ¢â¬â¢d been in. To my horror, Mason was riveted by her every word. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, decapitations arenÃ¢â¬â¢t as easy as they seem,Ã¢â¬ she said in her matter-of-fact way. IÃ¢â¬â¢d never thought they were easy at all, but her tone suggested that she believed everyone thought they were cake. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to get through the spinal cord and tendons.Ã¢â¬ Through the bond, I felt Lissa grow queasy. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t one for gruesome talk. MasonÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes lit up. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the best weapon to do it with?Ã¢â¬ My mother considered. Ã¢â¬Å"An axe. You can get more weight behind it.Ã¢â¬ She made a swinging motion by way of illustration. Ã¢â¬Å"Cool,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"Man, I hope they let me carry an axe.Ã¢â¬ It was a comical and ludicrous idea, since axes were hardly convenient weapons to carry around. For half a second, the thought of Mason walking down the street with an axe over his shoulder lightened my mood a little. The moment quickly passed. I honestly couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe we were having this conversation on Christmas. Her presence had soured everything. Fortunately, the gathering eventually dispersed. Christian and Lissa went off to do their own thing, and Dimitri and Tasha apparently had more catching up to do. Mason and I were well on our way to the dhampir dorm when my mother joined us. None of us said anything. Stars cluttered the black sky, sharp and bright, their glitter matched in the ice and snow around us. I wore my ivory parka with fake fur trimming. It did a good job keeping my body warm, even though it did nothing against the chilly gusts that seared my face. The whole time we walked, I kept expecting my mother to turn off toward the other guardian areas, but she came right inside the dorm with us. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been wanting to talk to you,Ã¢â¬ she finally said. My alarms clicked on. What had I done now? That was all she said, but Mason picked up on the hint immediately. He was neither stupid nor oblivious to social cues, though at that moment, I kind of wished he was. I also found it ironic that he wanted to fight every Strigoi in the world but was afraid of my mother. He glanced at me apologetically, shrugged, and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got to get, um, somewhere. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll see you later.Ã¢â¬ I watched with regret as he left, wishing I could run after him. Probably my mom would only tackle me and punch my other eye if I tried to escape. Better to do things her way and get this over with. Shifting uncomfortably, I looked everywhere but at her and waited for her to speak. Out of the corner of my eye, I noticed a few people glancing over at us. Recalling how everyone in the world seemed to know about her giving me the black eye, I suddenly decided I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want witnesses around for whatever lecture she was about to unleash on me. Ã¢â¬Å"You want to, um, go to my room?Ã¢â¬ I asked. She looked surprised, almost uncertain. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure.Ã¢â¬ I led her upstairs, keeping a safe distance away as we walked. Awkward tension built between us. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything when we reached my room, but I saw her examine every detail carefully, as though a Strigoi might be lurking in there. I sat on the bed and waited while she paced, unsure what I should do. She ran her fingers over a stack of books on animal behavior and evolution. Ã¢â¬Å"Are these for a report?Ã¢â¬ she asked. Ã¢â¬Å"No. IÃ¢â¬â¢m just interested in it, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all.Ã¢â¬ Her eyebrows rose. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t known that. But how would she? She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anything about me. She continued her appraisal, stopping to study little things that apparently surprised her about me. A picture of Lissa and me dressed up like fairies for Halloween. A bag of SweeTarts. It was as though my mother were meeting me for the first time. Abruptly, she turned and extended her hand toward me. Ã¢â¬Å"Here.Ã¢â¬ Startled, I leaned forward and held my palm out underneath hers. Something small and cool dropped into my hand. It was a round pendant, a small one- not much bigger than a dime in diameter. A base of silver held a flat disc of colored glass circles. Frowning, I ran my thumb over its surface. It was strange, but the circles almost made it look like an eye. The inner one was small, just like a pupil. It was so dark blue that it looked black. Surrounding it was a larger circle of pale blue, which was in turn surrounded by a circle of white. A very, very thin ring of that dark blue color circled the outside. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬ I said. I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t expected anything from her. The gift was weird- why the hell would she give me an eye?- but it was a gift. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ ¦ I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get you anything.Ã¢â¬ My mom nodded, face blank and unconcerned once more. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fine. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need anything.Ã¢â¬ She turned away again and started walking around the room. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a lot of space to do it, but her shorter height gave her a smaller stride. Each time she passed in front of the window over my bed, the light would catch her auburn hair and light it up. I watched her curiously and realized she was as nervous as me. She halted in her pacing and glanced back toward me. Ã¢â¬Å"HowÃ¢â¬â¢s your eye?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Getting better.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good.Ã¢â¬ She opened her mouth, and I had a feeling she was on the verge of apologizing. But she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. When she started pacing again, I decided I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stand the inactivity. I began putting my presents away. IÃ¢â¬â¢d gotten a pretty nice haul of stuff this morning. One of them was a silk dress from Tasha, red and embroidered with flowers. My mother watched me hang it in the roomÃ¢â¬â¢s tiny closet. Ã¢â¬Å"That was very nice of Tasha.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah,Ã¢â¬ I agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know she was going to get me anything. I really like her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Me too.Ã¢â¬ I turned from the closet in surprise and stared at my mom. Her astonishment mirrored mine. If I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t known any better, IÃ¢â¬â¢d have said weÃ¢â¬â¢d just agreed on something. Maybe Christmas miracles did happen. Ã¢â¬Å"Guardian Belikov will be a good match for her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I- Ã¢â¬ I blinked, not entirely sure what she was talking about. Ã¢â¬Å"Dimitri?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Guardian Belikov,Ã¢â¬ she corrected sternly, still not approving of my casual way of addressing him. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬ ¦ what kind of match?Ã¢â¬ I asked. She raised an eyebrow. Ã¢â¬Å"You havenÃ¢â¬â¢t heard? SheÃ¢â¬â¢s asked him to be her guardian- since she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have one.Ã¢â¬ I felt like IÃ¢â¬â¢d been punched again. Ã¢â¬Å"But heÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦assigned here. And to Lissa.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Arrangements can be made. And regardless of the Ozera reputationÃ¢â¬ ¦sheÃ¢â¬â¢s still royal. If she pushes, she can get her way.Ã¢â¬ I stared bleakly into space. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, I guess they are friends and everything.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"More than that- or possibly could be.Ã¢â¬ Bam! Punched again. Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm? Oh. SheÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦interested in him.Ã¢â¬ By my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s tone, it was clear that romantic matters actually held no interest for her. Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢s willing to have dhampir children, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible they might eventually make an, um, arrangement if he were her guardian.Ã¢â¬ Oh. My. God. Time froze. My heart stopped beating. I realized my mother was waiting for a response. She was leaning against my desk, watching me. She might be able to hunt down Strigoi, but she was oblivious to my feelings. Ã¢â¬Å"Is Ã¢â¬ ¦ is he going to do it? Be her guardian?Ã¢â¬ I asked weakly. My mom shrugged. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think heÃ¢â¬â¢s agreed to it yet, but of course he will. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a great opportunity.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Of course,Ã¢â¬ I echoed. Why would Dimitri turn down the chance to be a guardian to a friend of his and to have a baby? I think my mom said something else after that, but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear it. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t hear anything. I kept thinking about Dimitri leaving the Academy, leaving me. I thought about the way he and Tasha had gotten along with each other so well. And then, after those recollections, my imagination started improvising future scenarios. Tasha and Dimitri together. Touching. Kissing. Naked. Other things Ã¢â¬ ¦ I squeezed my eyes shut for half a second and then opened them. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m really tired.Ã¢â¬ My mom stopped mid-sentence. I had no idea what sheÃ¢â¬â¢d been saying before I interrupted her. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m really tired,Ã¢â¬ I repeated. I could hear the hollowness in my own voice. Empty. No emotion. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks for the eyeÃ¢â¬ ¦um, thing, but if you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ My mother stared at me in surprise, her features open and confused. Then, just like that, her usual wall of cool professionalism slammed back into place. Until that moment, I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t realized how much sheÃ¢â¬â¢d let it up. But she had. For just a brief time, sheÃ¢â¬â¢d made herself vulnerable with me. That vulnerability was now gone. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course,Ã¢â¬ she said stiffly. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to bother you.Ã¢â¬ I wanted to tell her it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t that. I wanted to tell her I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t kicking her out for any personal reason. And I wanted to tell her that I wished she were the kind of loving, understanding mother you always hear about, one I could confide in. Maybe even a mother I could discuss my troubled love life with. God. I wished I could tell anyone about that, actually. Especially right now. But I was too caught up in my own personal drama to say a word. I felt like someone had ripped my heart out and tossed it across the other side of the room. There was a burning, agonizing pain in my chest, and I had no idea how it could ever be filled. It was one thing to accept that I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have Dimitri. It was something entirely different to realize someone else could. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say anything else to her because my speech capabilities no longer existed. Fury glinted in her eyes, and her lips flattened out into that tight expression of displeasure she so often wore. Without another word, she turned around and left, slamming the door behind her. That door slam was something I would have done too, actually. I guess we really did share some genes. But I forgot about her almost immediately. I just kept sitting there and thinking. Thinking and imagining. I spent the rest of the day doing little more than that. I skipped dinner. I shed a few tears. But mostly, I just sat on my bed thinking and growing more and more depressed. I also discovered that the only thing worse than imagining Dimitri and Tasha together was remembering when he and I had been together. He would never touch me again like that, never kiss me againÃ¢â¬ ¦ This was the worst Christmas ever. How to cite Frostbite Chapter 9, Essay examples
Monday, May 4, 2020
Forecasts by AAI for the next 5 years have projected a sustainable growth rate of 16% for international and 20% for domestic aviation sector. Recognizing the exponential growth of air traffic in India, the Ministry of Civil Aviation has been following a very liberal policy in the exchange of capacity entitlements / traffic rights. Domestic airlines have been allowed to fly overseas, forge partnerships with foreign carriers while foreign carriers in turn have been interlining with domestic airlines to access secondary destinations. The government has also tried to ensure an environment conducive for growth of all stakeholders associated with Indian aviation segment. With the rise in the number of airlines, growing passenger segment and route expansion, there is however a need for Indian airports to have their infrastructure in place, which unfortunately at present is the weakest link in the chain. Greenfield and modernization projects are being developed on PPP model to develop facilities conforming to international standards and to encourage the domestic operators to shift base, so as to decongest major airports. We will write a custom essay sample on Indian Airline Industry or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To monitor the quality of services rendered by various airports and their tariff, an independent regulator, Airport Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA), is proposed to be appointed. To ensure competitive practices in ground handling services, the government has proposed adoption of a new ground handling policy from January 2009. Global and domestic aircraft manufacturers are upbeat on the aircraft demands from India. Non scheduled services have also steadily picked up and are growing at a CAGR of 19% primarily driven by a sustained growth in the economy and facilitated by the need of Indian corporate captains to invest in more productive hours every day. In addition, total cargo traffic of all airports has increased from 10% during 2006-07 to 14% in 2007-08, recording a CAGR of 13% for last six years. With the growth in the passenger and aircraft traffic in India, there has also been a significant focus on requirement of maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) facilities. The Indian MRO market is growing at about 15% annually. However, on the manpower front, currently there is a shortage of qualified pilots and other technical staff including Aircraft Maintenance Engineers and Air Traffic Controllers. While there are a lot of new avenues in aerospace services in the coming decades, the constraints associated need to be addressed to enable the smooth growth of the sector. Some of the issues faced by the sector include mounting losses of the airlines, rising aviation fuel prices, congestion at airports, shortage of qualified pilots and technical manpower, upgradation of security, land acquisition, high taxation, high airport charges etc. There is a need to study the causes of the issues and address the same thereby paving an unobstructed growth path for the various opportunities. The need of the hour is to efficiently utilize the existing resources and at the same time commission the planned infrastructure in a timely manner. In addition, a collaborative effort must be initiated involving all the stakeholders concerned to chalk out a framework detailing the measures, the Indian aviation sector needs to pursue in the next five to ten years. This framework would act as a platform to scale new heights and make India one of the leaders in the global aviation industry. The framework would require prioritization of various issues on the basis of importance (high, normal or low). This would ensure a focused approach to understand the root cause of the issue and to address the same by taking necessary remedial actions. The framework would also emphasize on the time lines for leveraging the opportunities abound in the sector. INDIAN AVIATION India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world with an average GDP growth of over 8. percent in last five years. For India to sustain its economic growth story it has to strengthen its infrastructure sector and in particular, critically improve its transportation infrastructure. Aviation is an important part of national infrastructure and one of the prime movers for economic growth and an important strategic element of employment generation. Aviation sector in India has been tra nsformed from an over regulated and under managed sector to a more open, liberal and investment friendly sector since 2004. The international passenger growth has been growing at CAGR of over 14% and domestic growth has been an impressive 22% for last 6 years. Cargo growth India already has an open sky policy for air cargo. An air cargo hub is being developed at Nagpur by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. The ministry also has plans to build dedicated cargo airports across the country to cater to increasing demand in air cargo traffic. During the year 2007-08, the domestic cargo traffic grew by 11% while the international cargo traffic grew by 15%. The domestic cargo is expected to increase at a CAGR of 13% during the period 2007-2010 while the international cargo is expected to grow at a CAGR of 14% over the same period. At present India contributes over 1% of the world air cargo traffic. Growth drivers The factors contributing to the air traffic growth can be broadly classified into economic and policy factors. Entry of low cost carriers, higher house hold incomes, strong economic growth, increased FDI inflows, surging tourist inflow, increased cargo movement, strong business growth and supporting government policies are the major drivers for the growth of aviation sector in India. For growth drivers refer the table below: Table 2: Growth drivers Economic Factor| Policy Factor| Ã¢â¬ ¢ Liberalization and economic reforms undertaken by the governmentÃ¢â¬ ¢ Fast expansion of industries in consonance with economic reformsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Emergence of service sectorÃ¢â¬ ¢ Average GDP growth of around 8. 9% during the last 5 yearsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Increase in inbound and outbound tourists and medical tourismÃ¢â¬ ¢ Over 300 million strong middle classÃ¢â¬ ¢ Disposable incomes expected to increase at an average of 8. 5%p. a. ill 2015Ã¢â¬ ¢ Emergence of low cost airlinesÃ¢â¬ ¢ The organized retail boom that would require the need for timelydelivery thus contributing to the growth in the air cargo segmentÃ¢â¬ ¢ Corporate showing increasing preference for private jets and aircharter services| Ã¢â¬ ¢ Modernization and setting up new airports across countryÃ¢â¬ ¢ City side development of non metro airportsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Providing international airport status to major tier I and tier II cit iesÃ¢â¬ ¢ Open sky policyÃ¢â¬ ¢ Policy of license to new scheduled operatorsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Permission to acquire new aircraftsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Permission of private operators to perate on international sectorsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Encouraging private investments in airlines and airport infrastructureÃ¢â¬ ¢ Facilitative foreign direct investment normsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Liberal bilateral service agreementsÃ¢â¬ ¢ Emphasis on development through PPP mode| Source: (Commision, 2007-12) Bilateral Agreements India has so far entered into Air Services Agreements with around 101 countries. A bilateral Air Transport Agreement (also sometimes called a bilateral Air Service Agreement) is an agreement which two nations sign to allow civil aviation between their territories. Air Services Agreement provides the basic legal framework for operation of air services between India and the country concerned. The number of flights/ seats per week to be operated by the designated airlines of India and the contracting foreign country are decided by Government level bilateral talks, which are held at regular interval depending upon growth of traffic based on the principle of mutual benefit and reciprocity.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
A Dolls House Study Guide Paper The fact that Nora pays the porter twice shows Norms wasteful habit, foresee downing that this might lead to problems in the future. 2. It also shows that Nora is obedient to Heeler in front of him,but it also show s another side Norms character as she continues to get what she wants behind his back. 3. Helmets pet names for Nora were: little lark, little squirrel, little spends whirr, and little feathered. These names show Nora as little in the eyes of Heeler giving her quality sees of animal. 4. Heeler shows to be a person who prefers to save money and avoid fro spending his money recklessly, He also believes in a life of no debt and no borrowing. Nora believe sees that money is for spending. Such a nature that she has inherited from her father. She also think S that she is allowed to spend more money now that Heeler is getting a job promotion, and getting g a bigger salary sum. 5. How does this set up a framework for future action? This starts to make this the plot. We already know that Nora likes to spend m none too much, and cant save anything. We will write a custom essay sample on A Dolls House Study Guide specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on A Dolls House Study Guide specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on A Dolls House Study Guide specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Hemmer is a man that doesnt like to borrow MO nee, This is what think is going to be the problem and whats going to be the problem in t e play. 6. What does Norms flirtatious behavior suggest about her relationship with Hell Nora and Heeler have a stable relationship, and they also sometimes have a serious and true relationship. Heeler also cares and criticizes her habit of spending none y too much. 7. What literary element is used when Heeler refers to Norms father, and what does Heeler say about the father? Heeler uses a simile to compare Norms money spending problem habits to h re dad. He consider Nora to be an odd little soul who always finds some new way of get ting money out of him. Heeler also says that once she has money it seems to melt in her hands similar to her father. 8. What does the reader learn when Heeler raises the subject of sweets, saying Hasnt Miss Sweetshop been breaking rules in town today? Heeler has actually prohibited Nora from eating sweetmeats, as he believes t hat it will ruin her teeth. Furthermore, she lies to him as she denies having to have taken a b tie or two on a macaroon. 9. When the family was short Of money, what did Nora do so they could all Caleb rate Christmas? What does this symbolize, and what does it suggest about her chaw acted? Nora sat in a room for a full three weeks beforehand, evening until long after midnight so that she could make ornaments for their Christmas tree. Norms doesnt want the family to lose out on anything due to money problems, and will do anything to everyone e can have a good time. 10. What does the reader infer about the Heeler family choice to have servants even when they are in tight economic circumstances? Given their circumstances, the fact that the Heeler family still chooses to have e servants can mean wealth, class and luxury, and could also say the heeler family likes to live a comfortable life. 11. When the doorbell rings, why does Heeler say, If it is a caller, remember that I am not at home? He believes most of his visitors arrive for requests about their financial dispose Zion and especially since he has recently been appointed at a high post in the bank, 12. How is Norms clandestineness illustrated in her initial conversation with Mrs.. Lined? He shares the perfect stories in order to maintain reputation and class in socio TTY. 13. More exposition occurs when Nora discusses Helmets early career with Mrs.. Lined. What does the reader learn about Helmets career? He used to be a barrister but will start to work at a bank in the New Year. Did not get much work as uncertain thing but he will start to receive more money as he assume s the job at the bank 14. What behavioral problem does Mrs.. Lined chide Nora about? Mrs.. Lined chides Nora for her money spending problems. 15. What does Nora reveal about how she and Heeler have managed financially? How did they raise the money needed to go to Italy for his health? What is significant about her comments? Nora says that both of them worked. Heeler was a lawyer, however since he didnt earn enough money at his office, so he chose to leave, when Nora and he got Mari De. Heeler overworked himself in order to provide for the family and fell critically ill. Nor a says she got money from her dad before he died to travel to Italy. 16. What does Mrs.. Lined admit about her marriage? She admits that she married her suburban for the money and there was no I eve in their relationship. 7. Why has Mrs.. Lined come to Norms house? Mrs.. Lined went to Norms house in search of help from her husband in either finding a job. 18. Mrs.. Lined says to Nora, . You know so little of the burdens and troubles of life. What literary devices are used here? Mrs.. Lined uses exaggeration to make her point about Norms experience of the e true world and reality. 19. What is Mrs.. Lindens initial reaction as Nor a begins to reveal the source of the 250 pounds? What does this conversation reveal about the status of women? Mrs.. Lined is baffled when Nora starts to reveal the source of the 250 pounds and begins to wonder where she got it from if it wasnt from her father. Mrs.. Lined states that t a wife cannot borrow without her husbands consent, which says that women hold a lower status in society than their husband or any man 20. Nora gives Mrs.. Lined a summary of the source of the funds. In terms of the wellhead play, why is this important? This is relative as a Wellhead play/ usually contains a strong and climatic bull UDP based on the suspense between characters through secrets and misunderstanding. Hen Nora reveals the truth of the money to Mrs.. Lined. It triggers the climatic and turning g point events. 21. How has Nora managed her own finances to address her debts? Nora has saved a bit up, she has also saved up by buying the simplest and chi pests stuff and saving the rest to pay her interests and installment payment. 22. Why has Norms work copying documents been so important? Copying documents ha s been very important for Nora, as she follows this job as her way for income and money last Christmas in order to pay off debts, 23. What dangers exist in Norms employment? Here are several tasks to perform in her employment so she loses track of the e money she has paid back,the remainder she owes continues to increase due to quarterly interests. 24. At this point in the play, where is the power allocated among Heeler, Nora, a ND Mrs.. Lined? At this moment in time, most of the power is allocated between Heeler and Mrs.. Lined in imprison to Nora. Heeler, because he is unaware of a Norms secret, which could destroy their family simply because of Helmets high moral values, hence why Nora has kept the borrowing of the money a secret in fear of the consequences. Mrs.. Lie need also has a fair share of power as she is let in on Norms secret and can use this to harm the Heeler family or blackmail Nora into getting her a job at Tortillas bank. After borrow Eng without her husbands consent, lying to her husband and getting a job to pay off the prove us debts, Nora seems to be quite powerless and subdued by the fear of Heeler and his reaction to re past actions which she is afraid might have dire consequences. 25. Who is Sarasota? Sarasota is a lawyer who suffers from great disrepute due to his past. He is CLC closely related to the Heeler family as Nora had previously borrowed money from him in or deer to pay for her husbands treatments and the family trip to the south. He is currently w irking at a very low post at the bank, which Dorval is due to join and feels threatened due to the arrival of Mrs.. Lined. He blackmails about revealing her secrets if she refuses to help hi m retain his position at the bank. For a first interaction with the audience, Sarasota pea s to be off very menacing and sinister character, which could possibly be a threat to the Heeler family. 6. What else could Sarasota possibly come to the Heeler home to discuss? Sarasota keeping in mind that he is aware of Norms dark secret, could have c mom to the Heeler home to discuss a raise or a promotion at the bank, which if he doses t attain with Tortillas help, he will force Nora to manipulate her husband. He says he has come to discuss bank business but he could use Dorval to help gain back his reputed ion in society. 27. What does the reader learn when Nora and Mrs.. Lined discuss Sarasota? The reader learns that Sarasota was once a solicitors clerk in Mrs.. Lindens to win, through which she has heard of him. We also learn that Sarasota had a very unhappy marriage and is now a widower and single parent. A sense of vagueness is noted when Mrs.. Lined say he carries on various kinds of business, but doesnt give detail about this. The is implies that he leads a private and a possibly immoral life and indulges in fraudulent buss news. 28. What is revealed in the conversation between Dry. Rank and Mrs.. Lined? It is revealed that in society in the earlier days, women were expected to be y nouns and vilely and not work. Dry. Rank taunts Mrs.. Lined of having some slight internal weakness when she states she cant manage stairs well. Furthermore he shows disbelief fee when she explains she hasnt come to town to amuse herself with entertainments, b UT in fact to kick for work. 29. What can the reader infer from Norms question as to whether all the people who are employed in the Bank are now dependent on Dorval? The nature of Norms question shows that she likes when Dorval has power a ND has people depend on him. Her overjoyed reaction to the Doctors answer shows that SSH e wants this to e the case as Ton,lad had previously said that living with debt means you are dependent on someone and your life is not your own, and with having people dependent on Dorval, it shows that he IS in power. This could also introduce her situation with the per son she previously borrowed money from to take the trip to the south. This also intro educes the theme of power as it is constantly iterated that power is greatly appreciated I n their society, and Nora believes that this could be a good thing for her family after their tribe ululations. 30. What is important about Norms offer of macaroons to Dry. Rank? Norms offer of macaroons to Dry. Rank show that she either shares a good real actions IP with him that she is allowing her secret of purchasing macaroons to be revealed. O r secondly, she is in a mood to celebrate news and hence does so. She provides Dry. Rank with something sweet to distract him, even though she knows that she is behaving irresponsibly and sharing forbidden sweetmeats with Dry. Rank. 31. How does Nora manage the conversation when she asks her husband to give Mrs.. Linden job? Nora approaches the subject very carefully and emphasizes the fact that Mrs.. Lined has taken a long journey in order to see Dorval. After this she uses persuasive la engage and praises Heeler in order manipulate and convince him into giving Mrs.. Lined a job. She praises both of them by saying, Christine is tremendously clever at bookkeeper inning as well emphasizing the fact that she is anxious to work under some clever man. The techniques helped to convince Dorval into considering helping Mrs.. Lined. 32. Why is Norms management of the conversation significant? Norms management of this conversation was significant as it depicts her pop re and influence over Dorval. Through this, the audience sees her ability to manipulate ate Dorval: his could also be a foreshadowing of another incident where she may be for cede to manipulate Dorval in order to keep her family in accord. This also shows that Dorval loves Nora a lot, as he allows her to direct his decisions in a society where women a re generally considered inferior and disallowed from making decisions or conducting the m generally. This also shows that Nora has been able to maintain Tortillas trust and Balkan CE a healthy relationship. 33. Why does Ibsen insert a scene of Nora romping with her children? The insertion of the scene of Nora romping with her children depicts Nora as young and lawful character who cares about her children very much. Her children adore her and this portrays her as a motherly figure that is dollied by her children. This support s the fact that she cares about her family as she has kept the debts a secret and is paying the me off individually in order to avoid any further strain to her husband. The placemen t of this scene also helps to lighten the mood of the play and comes across as a calm before the storm, as after this it is revealed to us that Nora is indebted to Sarasota. 4. What is Crossroads relationship with Nora? Sarasota is Norms moneylender and provides her money for the family to tar el to Italy in order to provide Dorval with the required treatment to save his life. Nora lied to Sarasota and forged her fathers signature on the official documents, which is later disc overfed by Dorval, who uses this secret to better his position at the bank wit h Norms hell p. He uses this crime to blackmail her into convincing Dorval to help him gain his repute Zion in society. 35. What is ironic about the following conversation? Nora : When anyone is in a subordinate position, Mr.. Sarasota, they should really b e careful to avoid offending anyone who-?who-? Sarasota : Who has influence? This conversation appears to be very ironic as Nora implies that Sarasota is in the subordinate position when dealing with bank matters with Dorval, hence she demands respect and warns him to be careful not to offend anyone, in this case herself, if he is expecting any changes with his situation at the bank and hoping to receive he Ip from Dorval. This is contradictory, as it has just been revealed that Sarasota know s that Nora forged her fathers signature on the loan documents, which gives Sarasota the e apprehend and the position to blackmail Nora who is seen as the subordinate in that mat term. Sarasota can use this to get Nora in trouble and hence, Nora should be really careful n tot to offend Sarasota since he has the evidence and influence to destroy her life. 36. What is discordant about Crossroads request that Nora influence Heeler in the e matter of Crossroads job? 37. Why does Sarasota think he is being fired? Sarasota believes that he will be fired as he saw Mrs.. Lined walk with Dorval and thinks that he is going to get her a job at the bank in order to replace Sarasota. Grog stand has a mindset that Dorval has the ability to influence decisions at the bank, cousin erring he will be asking up the post of the bank manager. Furthermore, this fear arises from the e thought that Dorval and him do not share the best working relations; hence his job at the bank is at risk. 38. In another example of exposition, what does Sarasota reveal about himself? Sarasota reveals to Mrs.. Heeler that he too on one incident, had committed a fraudulent act which was nothing more or nothing worse than what she had done. He also reveals that this indiscretion, what he considers himself guilty of was one false step, which h lost him all his reputation. Hence, in order to gain back his reputation, he is willing to go extents in order to secure his position at the bank and regain his reputation in society. 39. What does Sarasota mean when he says, l have the means to compel you? Sarasota tries to insinuate that due to Norms forgery of the signature and the fraud, which she committed when attempting to borrow the money, he has the power to manipulate her and force her to do things that she may disagree to. Furthermore, since Torts Id doesnt know that Nora approached Sarasota to borrow money for their trip, he cool d tell him causing disrepute to Nora. This example is seen when he tries to get Nora to c involve Dorval to secure his position at the bank, otherwise he threatens to reveal he r wallet secret. Through these means, Sarasota is going to compel Nora into doing HTH nags for his benefit, even if she disagrees to, as he currently has vital information that has the power to destroy her family and ruin her life and reputation in the society. 40. What is Norms reaction? Nora begins to panic and is afraid that if she doesnt comply with Crossroads w ashes, he will reveal her secret to Dorval.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Effects of Wolf Predation Effects of Wolf PredationAbstract: This paper discusses four hypotheses to explain the effectsof wolf predation on prey populations of large ungulates. The fourproposed hypotheses examined are the predation limiting hypothesis,the predation regulating hypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, andthe stable limit cycle hypothesis. There is much research literaturethat discusses how these hypotheses can be used to interpret variousdata sets obtained from field studies. It was concluded that thepredation limiting hypothesis fit most study cases, but that moreresearch is necessary to account for multiple predator - multiple preyrelationships.The effects of predation can have an enormous impact on theecological organization and structure of communities. The processes ofpredation affect virtually every species to some degree or another.Predation can be defined as when members of one species eat (and/orkill) those of another species. The specific type of predation betweenwolves and large ung ulates involves carnivores preying on herbivores.English: A camouflaged Menemerus sp Jumping spider...Predation can have many possible effects on the interrelations ofpopulations. To draw any correlations between the effects of thesepredator-prey interactions requires studies of a long duration, andstatistical analysis of large data sets representative of thepopulations as a whole. Predation could limit the prey distributionand decrease abundance. Such limitation may be desirable in the caseof pest species, or undesirable to some individuals as with gameanimals or endangered species. Predation may also act as a majorselective force. The effects of predator prey coevolution can explainmany evolutionary adaptations in both predator and prey species.The effects of wolf predation on species of large ungulates haveproven to be controversial and elusive. There have been many differentmodels proposed to describe the processes operating on populationsinfluenced by wolf predation. Some of th e proposed mechanisms includethe predation limiting hypothesis, the predation regulatinghypothesis, the predator pit hypothesis, and the stable limit cyclehypothesis (Boutin 1992). The purpose of this paper is to assess theempirical data on population dynamics and attempt to determine if oneof the four hypotheses is a better model of the effects of wolfpredation on ungulate population densities.The predation limiting hypothesis proposes that predation is theprimary factor that limits prey density. In this non- equilibriummodel recurrent fluctuations occur in the prey population. Thisimplies that the prey population does not return to some particularequilibrium after deviation. The predation limiting hypothesisinvolves a density independent mechanism. The mechanism might apply toone prey - one predator systems (Boutin 1992). This hypothesispredicts that losses of prey due to predation will be large enough tohalt prey population increase.Many studies support the hypothesis that predat ion limits preydensity. Bergerud et al. (1983) concluded from their study of theinterrelations of wolves and moose in the Pukaskwa National Park thatwolf predation limited, and may have caused a decline in, the moosepopulation, and that if wolves were eliminated, the moose populationwould increase until limited by some other regulatory factor, such asfood availability. However, they go on to point out that this upperlimit will not be sustainable, but will eventually lead to resourcedepletion and population decline. Seip (1992) found that high wolfpredation on caribou in the Quesnel Lake area resulted in a decline inthe population, while low wolf predation in the Wells Gray ProvincialPark resulted in a slowly increasing population. Wolf predation at theQuesnel Lake area remained high despite a fifty percent decline in thecaribou population, indicating that mortality due to predation was notdensity-dependent within this range of population densities. Dale etal. (1994), in their study of wolves and caribou in Gates NationalPark and Preserve, showed that wolf predation can be an importantlimiting factor at low caribou population densities, and may have ananti-regulatory effect. They also state that wolf predation may affectthe distribution and abundance of caribou populations. Bergerud andBallard (1988), in their interpretation of the Nelchina caribou herdcase history, said that during and immediately following a reductionin the wolf population, calf recruitment increased, which shouldresult in a future caribou population increase. Gasaway et al. (1983)also indicated that wolf predation can sufficiently increase the rateof mortality in a prey population to prevent the population'sincrease. Even though there has been much support of this hypothesis,Boutin (1992) suggests that "there is little doubt that predation is alimiting factor, but in cases where its magnitude has been measured,it is no greater than other factors such as hunting."A second hypothesis about the effects of wolf predation is thepredation regulating hypothesis, which proposes that predationregulates prey densities around a low-density equilibrium. Thishypothesis fits an equilibrium model, and assumes that followingdeviation, prey populations return to their pre-existing equilibriumlevels. This predator regulating hypothesis proposes that predation isa density-dependent mechanism affecting low to intermediate preydensities, and a density-independent mechanism at high prey densities.Some research supports predation as a regulating mechanism.Messier (1985), in a study of moose near Quebec, Canada, draws theconclusion that wolf-ungulate systems, if regulated naturally,stabilize at low prey and low predator population densities. InMessier's (1994) later analysis, based on twenty-seven studies wheremoose were the dominant prey species of wolves, he determined thatwolf predation can be density-dependent at the lower range of moosedensities. This result demonstrates that predation i s capable ofregulating ungulate populations. Even so, according to Boutin (1992)more studies are necessary, particularly at high moose densities, todetermine if predation is regulatory.A third proposal to model the effects of wolf predation on preypopulations is the predator pit hypothesis. This hypothesis is amultiple equilibria model. It proposes that predation regulates preydensities around a low-density equilibrium. The prey population canthen escape this regulation once prey densities pass a certainthreshold. Once this takes place, the population reaches an upperequilibrium. At this upper equilibrium, the prey population densitiesare regulated by competition for (and or availability of) food. Thispredator pit hypothesis assumes that predator losses aredensity-dependent at low prey densities, but inverselydensity-dependent at high prey densities. Van Ballenberghe (1985)states that wolf population regulation is needed when a caribou herdpopulation declines and becomes trapped in a predator pit, whereinpredators are able to prevent caribou populations from increasing.The final model that attempts to describe the effects ofpredation on prey populations is the stable limit cycle hypothesis.This hypothesis proposes that vulnerability of prey to predationdepends on past environmental conditions. According to this theory,individuals of a prey population born under unfavorable conditions aremore vulnerable to predation throughout their adult lives than thoseborn under favorable conditions. This model would produce time lagsbetween the proliferation of the predator and the prey populations, ineffect generating recurring cycles. Boutin (1992) states that if thishypothesis is correct, the effects of food availability (or the lackof) should be more subtle than outright starvation. Relatively severewinters could have long- term effects by altering growth, production,and vulnerability. Thompson and Peterson (1988) reported that thereare no documented cases of wolf preda tion imposing a long-term limiton ungulate populations independent of environmental influences. Theyalso point out that summer moose calf mortality was high whetherpredators were present or not, and that snow conditions during thewinter affected the vulnerability of calves to predation. Messier(1994) asserts that snow accumulation during consecutive winters doesnot create a cumulative impact on the nutritional status of deer andmoose.All of the four proposed theories mentioned above could describethe interrelationships between the predation of wolves and their usualnorth american prey of large ungulate species. There has been ampleevidence presented in the primary research literature to support anyone of the four potential models. The predation limiting hypothesisseems to enjoy wide popular support, and seems to most accuratelydescribe most of the trends observed in predator-prey populations.Most researchers seem to think that more specific studies need to beconducted to find an ide al model of the effects of predation. Bergerudand Ballard (1988) stated "A simple numbers argument regardingprey:predator ratios overlooks the complexities in multi-predator-preysystems that can involve surplus killing, additive predation betweenpredators, enhancement and interference between predator species,switch over between prey species, and a three-fold variation in foodconsumption rates by wolves." Dale et al. (1994) stated that furtherknowledge of the factors affecting prey switching, such asdensity-dependent changes in vulnerability within and between preyspecies, and further knowledge of wolf population response is neededto draw any firm conclusions. Boutin (1992) also proposed that thefull impact of predation has seldom been measured because researchershave concentrated on measuring losses of prey to wolves only.Recently, bear predation on moose calves has been found to besubstantial, but there are few studies which examine this phenomenon(Boutin 1992). Messier (1994) als o pointed out that grizzly and blackbears may be important predators of moose calves during the summer.Seip (1992), too, states that bear predation was a significant causeof adult caribou mortality. These points emphasize thatmultiple-predator and multiple-prey systems are probably at work inthe natural environment, and we must not over generalize a onepredator - one prey hypothesis in the attempt to interpret the overalltrends of the effects of predation of wolves on large ungulatepopulations.Literature CitedBergerud, A. T., W. Wyett, and B. Snider. 1983. The role of wolfpredation in limiting a moose population. Journal ofWildlife Management. 47(4): 977-988.Bergerud, A. T., and W. B. Ballard. 1988. Wolf predation on caribou:the Nelchina herd case history, a different interpretation. Journal ofWildlife Management. 52(2): 344- 357.Boutin, S.. 1992. Predation and moose population dynamics: a critique.Journal of Wildlife Management. 56(1): 116-127.Dale, B. W., L. G. Adams, and R. T. Bo wyer. 1994. Functional responseof wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multiple preyecosystem. Journal of Animal Ecology. 63: 644- 652.Gasaway, W. C., R. O. Stephenson, J. L. Davis, P. E. K. Shepherd, andO. E. Burris. 1983. Interrelationships of wolves, prey, and man ininterior Alaska. Wildlife Monographs. 84: 1- 50.Messier, F.. 1985. Social organization, spatial distribution, andpopulation density of wolves in relation to moose density. CanadianJournal of Zoology. 63: 1068-1077.Messier, F.. 1994. Ungulate population models with predation: a casestudy with the North American moose. Ecology. 75(2): 478-488.Seip, D.. 1992. Factors limiting woodland caribou populations and irinterrelationships with wolves and moose in southeastern BritishColombia. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 70: 1494-1503.Thompson, I. D., and R. O. Peterson. 1988. Does wolf predation alonelimit the moose population in Pukaskwa Park?: a comment. Journal ofWildlife Management. 52(3): 556-559.Van Ballenberghe, V. . 1985. Wolf predation on caribou: the Nelchinaherd case history. Journal of Wildlife Management. 49(3): 711-720.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
How can a BMW franchise create Customer Engagement through Social Media - Research Paper Example According to the research findings the reasons behind the utilisation of the social media sites depend upon multifarious factors. Its utilisation may depend upon components such as company profile, products and customers that the company is serving. Social media websites can be considered as a good way through which the dependability as well as the goodwill of a company can be enhanced. People make use of social media sites for certain reasons such as for the purpose of interacting, collaborating, looking for counsel from the experts, disseminating of the multimedia, looking for opinions, contributing reviews as well as entertainment. Most of the people argue the fact that social media tends to bring a new sense of community by permitting them to connect with those who are similar to themselves i.e. like-minded people and people with similar tastes and preferences. A number of people are making use of the social media while initiating purchase decisions. The figure below demonstrates the use of social media by BMW and others and the benefits obtained by it in order to gain higher return on investment. The figure makes it apparent that BMW scores high in terms of revenues earned by making use of the social media. It is a well known fact that the new media environment is featured by interactivity and multi-dimensional communication flows. With the pace of time, the marketing functions have also started incorporating social media in its campaigns. (Yamamichi, 2011). The increased utilisation of social networking sites such as Facebook as well as Twitter in order to market the products as well as the services is gaining huge attention in the recent times. The companies make use of the social media sites as one of the significant communication channels so that they can gain feedback of the consumers. It has been recognised that on-line communities are considered as a vital component of social media since they offer the companies with cross-selling opportunities to v arious user groups sharing the similar platform (Donath, 2004). Social media can offer BMW with immediate feedbacks and present the company with quick indications regarding what is required in order to resolve pertinent issues. In the present times, the companies make use of the social media so that they can improve their marketing schemes. The purpose of social media must be to improve branding of the business of BMW and to increase the popularity of the product. It can be mentioned that the social media must also be utilised for the purpose of tracking the presence of the business online in order to ensure that the clients are not deteriorating the value of the brand (Zwart, Lindsay, Henderson, & Phillips, 2011). Certain authors have stated the fact that one of the main benefits of social media is to identify precisely regarding what the customers are thinking. Businesses also make use of the social media sites in order to increase the sales of the products and the services and in turn to increase the market share (Ali, 2011). Social media makes it easier for the companies to create relationships, position the brand properly and share exciting experiences and information with their customers (National Association of Insurance Commissioners, 2011). Web Users Frequency It has been found that the rate of internet penetration in Europe in the year 2011 had been 61.3% while the world average was 32.7%. Internet penetration in rest of the world has been 28.9%. The figure presented below helps